I looked at elements such as Unproven, Test, Feelings, and Control, and I think you can find all these elements in the story. However, I think those are all pieces of storytelling that originate from the true personal problem. So here is my best guess at the MC Throughline, since this something a lot of people seem uncertain about:
Carol Danvers is pushed to conform to the status quo of the inhabitants of Halla and planet C-53. Other characters are constantly pushing her to accept the way things are, the way things ALWAYS will be. However, she seems driven to question everything, to challenge and Change that status quo. And that is when she encounters opposing forces telling her to conform to status quo (MC Solution of Inertia):
"You're not strong enough!"
“You know why they call it a cockpit, don't you?"
"You gonna smile for me?"
"You have to control your emotions."
At any moment, Carol could accept that she will always fail, always be considered weak, always have to smile for men, always control her emotions. This would resolve her problems.
Also, each of those lines could represent the MC symptom of Perceptions. Their negative/oppressive perceptions of her seem accurate, as she fails again and again. However, by ignoring the false perceptions of herself and searching for the truth of who she really is, Carol is able to piece together her past life. She is eventually able to remember her past selves rising up again and again, and reaffirms her drive to alter the status quo.
Concern of Past, Problem of Change, and Symptom of Perceptions. Steadfast resolve.
Big Scene #1:
A huge part of Carol's growth is when she overcomes the perception that the Kree are noble warrior heroes and accepts the actuality of the war. Throughout the film, she's pushed for others to see reality objectively, to overcome their false perceptions. Now, Talos shows up and challenges her to more take a huge step in building up her resolve, to accept reality and help him.
Her subjective Memories of Talos impact her towards the outdated attitude that "people are the way they seem." and "Skrulls are the bad guys". She's tempted to resolve the problem by accepting false perceptions and embracing the solution of Inertia, which would be like saying: "You can't be good because skrulls are bad. They've always been bad. And we've always been good."
Carol remains steadfast and ends up helping her worst enemy now turned friend.
Big Scene #2
Finally, probably the most critical and most important scene that shows her resolve is when Yon-rogg tries to get her to prove herself like he did at the start. He urges her again to conform to his way of fighting, because he pushes the perception that unless she does this, she's weak. In response, Carol blasts him (just as she did at the start) with a response of: "I have nothing to prove to you", Carol shows yet again that she's not going to conform to an injust, oppressive attitude.
She's going to push the world to keep moving "Higher, further, faster".
Okay, with all that said, yeah. They could've emphasized a lot of storypoints better. They could've told the story better. But I think it's closer to making an argument than Infinity War or Ant-Man and the Wasp were. You can tell they're trying to send some sort of message with this one. Something along the lines of: "Refuse to conform to the status quo, and you can come to a greater understanding of your identity."