I think it’s very much aligned with how Carl Jung delineated the difference between Sensors and Intuitives, and further specified each with an extroverted and introverted version of each of those. (Gonna get back to the question in the end, bear with me.)
Intuition and Sensing are perceptive functions. We don’t use them to solve problems per se, not rationally at least. They are more like targeting and navigation systems that we use to decide where to focus our rational functions on.
The Thinking and Feeling functions are the rational ones, using their respective logical and ethical systems to solve problems. Thinking is Objective reason and Feeling is Subjective reason.
Intuition and Sensing on the other hand are irrational. Memory and sensory systems for Sensing, and pattern matching and pattern projection systems for Intuition. All of those can be faulty and unique to the individual because Intuition creates its own systems. Extroverted intuition derives truth from multiple contexts with one normative data point each, while introverted intuition derives meaning from one normative context with multiple data points. Introverted Sensing derives meaning from memory, and Extroverted Sensing derives truth from the immediate senses.
Everyone has both Intuitive and Sensing cognitive functions, according to Jung. But we differ on their relative dominance. Jung theorized these functions stack in certain ways, and there are only 16 ways these could possible stack. So there are 16 personality archetypes.
Two different types will use their Intuition in different ways. So to describe how a linear (sensing) or holistic (intuitive) person thinks, you are have to consider not just two types, but sixteen.
Dominant introverted intuitives (INTJ and INFJ) think in patterns projecting into the future. But the INTJ is focused more on mechanistic or instrumental systems, while INFJs are more focused on psycho-social and semantic systems. Both have inferior extroverted sensing, which can manifest as a distance from the present moment and difficulty engaging others.
Dominant extroverted intuitives (ENTP and ENFP) think in possibilities like a flowing river, but the water is physical principles for an ENTP, and the water is narrative potentials for an ENFP. Ne-dominants are masters of sailing on the water to find their unique cool idea or unique cool story. Both have inferior introverted sensing, which can manifest as unwillingness to compromise their autonomy.
Dominant introverted Sensors (ISTJ and ISFJ) think in terms of what they know from memory, but for ISTJs its memory is used to work out power relationships with others competitively, while for the ISFJ it is a sense of loyalty to the people they trust and know, and use memory to work out loyalty relationships demonstratively. Both have inferior Extroverted Intuition, which can manifest as unwarranted certainty in their beliefs.
Dominant Extroverted Sensors (ESTP and ESFP) think in terms of what excites them with their immediate senses. The ESTP use their bodies, reflexes and perceptive senses competitively, while ESFPs use those expressively. Both have inferior introverted intuition, which can manifest as poorly thought out future planning. They might have frequent try/fail cycles to get through that.
The other eight types have intuition or sensing as their secondary cognitive function, in support of their dominant function which is either Thinking or Feeling. I’ve leave it up to those interested to research that themselves with their favourite search engine. Or I might get back to this later to fill it in…