So, I think this is what you’re asking…
The analogy that helps me is simply “Analogy” itself.
What I mean by that is: I ask myself a really basic question about my story/characters to both get to those universal dilemmas and to double-check if my argument is relatable.
I’ll just rephrase the point of whichever throughline I’m looking at by saying "You know, it’s like when ____ "
It then becomes so much easier to detach myself from the Players or specific Relationships in that throughline. I can usually transpose the idea of the argument to something in my own life, or anyone else’s life.
You’re writing a story about a hobbit that must destroy an evil ring of power, but the closer he gets to destroying the ring the more he falls in love with it.
And then I say, “You know, it’s like when you have to quit something that’s bad for you, but the closer you get to doing it, the more you just want to hold on to it…”
Huh… I guess what I’m really saying is that “People need to get rid of dangerous things before it ruins their life… Except attachment to things makes them precious to you, bringing feelings of security”
(And I could be talking about ANYTHING here… smoking, credit cards, too much chocolate cake…)
And you start to see how when you get to the universal truth beneath your writing, the “characters” can basically fall away. It becomes really easy to see them as big metaphors for that POV. You’re able to relate it to a number of tangible things that anyone can feel. And I’d argue, you’re evoking the same feeling in an audience has with whatever it is in their life they struggle to get rid of when you show them your hobbit and his precious ring.
For me, taking a moment to analyze my writing like that works to my advantage as a writer. I’ll have a better understanding about subtle word choices to use to relate my story… metaphors, real life analogies, etc. etc.